Texture of bakery products
Sugar affects the texture of most bakery products.
Adding sugar/syrup affects the crumb by increasing its porosity, giving a more even structure and a somewhat larger volume. The sugar remaining in the dough after the rising process adds crispness to the crust.
In dough where fat and sugar are mixed, small air bubbles are incorporated into the dough. The crystal structure of the sugar affects the result. In biscuits, the sugar content affects the pastry's ability to spread on the baking tray, and thus also the surface and crispness of the end product.
In meringues, the egg-white proteins are stabilised by sugar. Different crystal structures in the sugar result in different structures in the meringues.